Arctic Hyporheic Zone Hydrology and Biogeochemistry



Project Title:Will climate change affect hyporheic processes in arctic streams? An assessment of interactions among geomorphology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry in Arctic stream networks
Project Duration: 1-Aug-2003 - 31-Jul-2006
Investigators:
Breck Bowden (University of Vermont)
John Bradford (Boise State University)
Michael Gooseff (Penn State University)
Jim McNamara (Boise State University)

Upper Kuparuk River tributary 1-6, photo by B. Bowden.Overview: We are investigating the responses of arctic tundra stream geomorphology, hyporheic zone hydrology, and biogeochemical cycling to climate change. In particular, we expect that hyporehic exchange dynamics in tundra streams are controlled by 1) channel features (pools, riffles, etc.), and 2) depth of thaw beneath the stream channel. Altered arctic climate will likely alter stream flows and therefore the fluvial geomorphic structure of stream channels. We hypothesize that the potential for hyporheic exchange increases as the climate warms and active layers deepen. At the same time, increased exchange of water between the stream and the hyporheic zone could be driving more or different types of hyporheic biogeochemical cycling, which may alter stream nutrient budgets.

project flow chart
Overview of this project within Arctic System Science, larger forcing factors, and other Arctic hydrologic research.

Specific Objectives:
1. Select and characterize stream reaches that represent the range of geomorphologic conditions in rivers of the North Slope.

2. Monitor the sub-stream thaw bulb size through the thaw season using ground penetrating radar and subsurface temperature measurement in several stream cross-sections within each reach.

3. Conduct repeated hyporheic exchange studies (stream solute addition experiments) through the thaw season in each reach to determine hyporheic hydraulic characteristics.

4. Conduct repeated measures of nutrient (N and P) concentrations and turnover time in the hyporheic zone through the thaw season in each reach to determine biogeochemical characteristics.

Location: Our field sites are within the Kuparuk River and Toolik Lake basins, north of the Brooks Range, Alaska. Our operations are based out of the Toolik Lake Research Station, run by the University of Alaska, Fairbanks.


Project Links:

Toolik Lake Inlet stream, photo by B. Bowden.



Published Results from this project:
(* indicates student lead author; title links are to abstracts, [poster] links are to .pdf versions of posters)
Journal Articles:
  1. Bradford, JH, JP McNamara, WB Bowden, and MN Gooseff. 2005. Imaging depth-of-thaw beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. Hydrological Processes,19(14): 2689-2699.

  2. *Brosten, T, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, JP Zarnetske, MN Gooseff, WB Bowden.  2006. Temporal thaw depth beneath two arctic stream types using ground-penetrating radar. Permafrost and Periglacial Processes, 17(4):341-355.

  3. *Zarnetske JP, MN Gooseff, T Brosten, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, and WB Bowden. 2007. Transient storage as a function of geomorphology, discharge, and permafrost active layer conditions in Arctic tundra streams. Water Resources Research, 43, W07410, doi:10.1029/2005WR004816.

  4. *Zarnetske, JP, MN Gooseff, WB Bowden, MJ Greenwald, T Brosten, JH Bradford, and JP McNamara. 2008.  Influence of morphology and permafrost dynamics on hyporheic exchange in Arctic headwater streams under warming climate conditions. Geophysical Research Letters, 35,  L02501,  doi:10.1029/2007GL032049

  5. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, DA Benson, OA Cirpka, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, and JH Bradford. 2008. Comparison of instantaneous and constant-rate stream tracer experiments through non-parametric analysis of residence time distributions. Water Resources Research, 44, W06404,  doi:10.1029/2007WR006274.
  6. Bowden, WB, MN Gooseff, J Bradford, A Balser, A Green, and B Peterson. 2008. Sediment and nutrient delivery from thermokarst features in the foothills of the North Slope, Alaska: Potential impacts on headwater stream ecosystems. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences, 113, G02026, doi:10.1029/2007JG000470.

  7. *Greenwald, MJ, WB Bowden, MN Gooseff, JP Zarnetske, JP McNamara, JH Bradford, and T Brosten. Hyporheic exchange and water chemistry of two arctic tundra streams of contrasting geomorphology. Journal of Geophysical Research-Biogeosciences,113, G02029, doi:10.1029/2007JG000549.

  8. *Brosten, T, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, MN Gooseff, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, and ME Johnston. 2009. Multi-offset GPR methods for hyporheic zone investigations. Near Surface Geophysics, 7(4): 247-257.

  9. Gooseff, MN, RA Payn, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, and JH Bradford. 2008. Comparison of in-channel mobile-immobile zone exchange during instantaneous and constant-rate stream tracer additions: Implications for design and interpretation of non-conservative tracer experiments. Journal of Hydrology, 357: 112-124,  doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2008.05.006.

  10. Bowden, WB, MJ Greenwald, MN Gooseff, JP Zarnetske, JP McNamara, J Bradford, and T Brosten. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus interactions in the hyporheic zones of arctic streams draining areas of continuous permafrost, eds. DL Kane, and KM Hinkel, Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, Institute of Northern Engineering, 165-170.

  11. *Brosten, TR, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, MN Gooseff, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, and  ME Johnston. 2009. Estimating 3D variation in active-layer thickness beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. Journal of Hydrology, 373(3-4): 479-486.


Conference Presentations:
(* indicates student lead author; title links are to abstracts, [poster] links are to .pdf versions of posters)
  1. Bradford, JH, JP McNamara, W Bowden, and MN Gooseff. 2003. Imaging depth-of-thaw beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Fracisco, CA.

  2. Gooseff, MN, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, and W Bowden. 2004. Imaging potential hyporheic zone extent beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. 2004 Arctic Workshop, INSTAAR, Boulder, CO. [poster]

  3. Gooseff, MN, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, and W Bowden. 2004. Imaging potential hyporheic zone extent beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC Canada. [poster]

  4. Bowden, WB, MN Gooseff, J Bradford, and J McNamara. 2004. Potential impacts of increased thermokarst activity on aquatic ecosystems in Arctic landscapes. [C13B-0277] American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [poster]

  5. *Brosten, T, J Bradford, J McNamara, W Bowden, and M Gooseff. 2004. Time lapse imaging of thaw-bulb development beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. [C13B-0279] American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

  6. *Zarnetske, J, MN Gooseff, WB Bowden, J Bradford, J McNamara, T Brosten, and K Hill. 2004. Seasonal evolution of hyporheic zones in Arctic tundra streams, North Slope, Alaska. [H21B-1010] American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [poster]

  7. Gooseff, MN, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, JH Bradford, J Zarnetske, and T Brosten. 2005. Will climate change affect hyporheic processes in Arctic stream networks? An assessment of interactions among geomorphology, hydrology, and biogeochemistry. American Society of Limnology and Oceanography Aquatic Sciences Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. [poster]

  8. *Payn, RA, JP Zarnetske, MN Gooseff, and WB Bowden. 2005. Comparison of transient storage analyses using slug and constant rate tracer methods in two arctic tundra streams. North American Benthological Society Meeting, New Orleans, LA. [poster]

  9. *Zarnetske, JP, MN Gooseff, WB Bowden, T Brosten, JP McNamara, and J Bradford. 2005. Relating transient storage to varied geomorphic, discharge, and hyporheic conditions in Arctic tundra streams. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT. [poster]

  10. *Brosten, T, J Bradford, J McNamara, W Bowden, M Gooseff, J Zarnetske. 2005. Characterizing subsurface active-layer permafrost beneath arctic streams using 3D ground-penetrating radar. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [poster]

  11. *Zarnetske, JP, MN Gooseff, WB Bowden, ME Johnston, JP McNamara, JH Bradford, and TR Brosten 2005. Effect of morphology and permafrost on hyporheic dynamics in two tundra streams on the North Slope of Alaska. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [poster]

  12. *Johnston-Greenwald, ME, WB Bowden, JP Zarnetske, MN Gooseff, JP McNamara, JH Bradford, and TR Brosten. 2006. Hyporheic biogeochemical processes in arctic tundra streams: A comparison of two geomorphically distinct streams. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AK.

  13. *Zarnetske, JP, MN Gooseff, ME Johnston-Greenwald, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, JH Bradford, and TR Brosten. 2006. Transient storage dynamics in Arctic tundra streams: A comparison of two geomorphically distinct streams. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AK.

  14. *Johnston Greenwald, M, W Bowden, J Zarnetske, M Gooseff, J McNamara, J Bradford, and T Brosten. 2006. Hyporheic Exchange and Biogeochemical Processes in Arctic Tundra Streams: A Comparison of Two Geomorphically Distinct Streams. LTER All Scientists Meeting, Estes Park, CO. [poster]

  15. *Brosten, T, J Bradford, J McNamara, M Gooseff, and W Bowden. 2006. Using multi-offset GPR data to estimate porosity variations beneath stream channels. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (C51B-0428).

  16. *Cozzetto, K, M Gooseff, R Neupauer, J McNamara, T Brosten, J Bradford, and B Bowden. 2006. Investigations of hyporheic temperature regimes in Arctic Alaska streams using time series analysis techniques. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (B23A-1062).

  17. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, and DA Benson. 2007. Comparison of stream reach residence time distributions measured with tracer experiments of different time scales. Hydrology Days, Colorado State University. [poster]

  18. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, DA Benson, OA Cirpka, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, and JH Bradford. 2007. Non-parametric comparison of residence time distributions derived from constant-rate and instantaneous stream tracer experiments.  Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado.

  19. Bowden, WB, MJ Greenwald, MN Gooseff, JP McNamara, J Bradford, JP Zarnetske, T Brosten. 2007. Stoichiometry of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus regeneration interactions in the hyporheic zones of arctic streams draining areas of continuous permafrost. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (B42A-05).

  20. *Brosten, TR, JH Bradford, JP McNamara, JP Zarnetske, MN Gooseff, WB Bowden, and MJ Johnston. 2007. Estimating 3D variation in active-layer thickness beneath arctic streams using ground-penetrating radar. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H21B-0509).

  21. Gooseff, MN, MB Cardenas, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, M Greenwald-Johnston, JP McNamara, JH Bradford, and TR Brosten. 2007. Channel-streambed interactions over and under ice. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H23J-02).

  22. *Zarnetske, JP, MN Gooseff, W Bowden, MJ Greenwald, TR Brosten, JH Bradford, and JP McNamara. 2007. Influence of morphology and permafrost dynamics on surface water-groundwater exchange in arctic headwater streams under present and enhanced thaw conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H31G-0740).

  23. Bowden, WB, MJ Greenwald, MN Gooseff, JP Zarnetske, JP McNamara, J Bradford, and T Brosten. Carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus interactions in the hyporheic zones of arctic streams draining areas of continuous permafrost, Ninth International Conference on Permafrost, Fairbanks, AK.

Theses/Dissertations:

  1. Zarnetske, JP. 2006. Headwater hyporheic zones in a warming Arctic climate: An assessment of hyporheic dynamics across distinct geomorphic and permafrost conditions. MS Thesis, Department of Aquatic, Watershed, and Earth Resources, Utah State University.

  2. Greenwald, M.J. 2007. Hyporheic exchange and biogeochemical processing in arctic tundra streams. MS Thesis, Rubenstein School of the Environment and Natural Resources, University of Vermont.


Undergraduate Students:

Graduate Students:

Educators:


Related Links:

Climate Change Science Links:


Current weather in the Toolik Lake Area:
Click for Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska Forecast
Current Weather at Toolik Lake
(from ARC LTER met station; only active during the summer)
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This project is funded through the National Science Foundation's Office of Polar Programs.
This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. 0327440. Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation


This page was created on 27-Jul-2003.
This page was last updated on 20-Jul-2009.

Questions? mgooseff@engr.psu.edu