Hydrological Linkages Between Landscapes and Stream Networks
Research: Hydrological linkages between landscapes and streams:
Transferring reach and plot scale understanding to the network and
Duration: 1-Apr-2004 - 31-Mar-2008
Gooseff (Penn State University)
Cr. Watershed DEM and Current Instrumentation Map (2005).
(Montana State University)
Jan Seibert (Swedish
University of Agricultural Sciences)
Bencala (NRP, USGS)
Markus Weiler (UBC)
Overview: Streams, riparian zones, and hillslopes
have been intensively studied at small spatial scales (stream reaches
<1 km, plots of a few m 2). At the other end of the
spectrum, entire catchments have been studied without explicit
understanding of how different landscape units interact. In this
project, we will address the connections between stream networks,
riparian zones and hillslope landscape units.
We will address the following questions:
can plot-scale measurements of the hydrologic processes that link
hillslopes to riparian areas be scaled up to whole catchments?
can reach-scale measurements of groundwater-surface water mixing in
riparian and hyporheic zones be scaled up to entire stream networks?
can we transfer our small-catchment scale understanding to larger
portions of the landscape or other catchments?
questions currently limit our ability to transfer our understanding of
hydrological processes studied at the plot or reach scale to larger
catchments. These questions beg integrated, multi-scale approaches that
combine landscape level topographic analysis, process-based field
investigations, and catchment-scale integration to identify the factors
controlling the hydrologic connectivity between source areas generating
runoff and the flow paths that link source areas to streams.
We will be conducting our research in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental
Forest in western Montana.
In the summer of 2005, we established 7 well and piezometer transects
across Stringer and Tenderfoot Creeks and we developed an enhanced dual
stream tracer method to calculate water balances for stream reaches. We
executed this new method along 28 - 100 m reaches of Stringer Cr., and
partially along Upper Tenderfook Cr. We also acquired ALSM lidar data
from NCALM, and preliminary products can be viewed:
resulting digital elevation map is ~1m resolution! We are currently
using this to perform enhanced landscape analyses.
On 19-Jun-2004, we
made a preliminary field reconnaissance trip to TCEF. We travelled the
main stem road to the lower Tenderfoot Cr. flume and walked the entire
length of Stringer Cr.
[Making water quality, stage, and GPS measurements at Lower Tenderfoot
Lower Stringer Cr. has a very different stream morphology, such as this
step-pool sequence, and narrower riparian zones than...
...Upper Stringer Cr., which has a shallower slope, less developed
bedform, and flows through wider meadows.
Lower Stringer Cr., stream gauge has an H-flume, records stage in a
stilling well (inside the gauge house), and records stage from the
sonic sensor that is attached to the tower.
In Sept., 2004 we installed a conductivity/temperature probe at this
location, as well as at Upper Stringer Cr. stream gauge.
There are 2 NRCS Snotel sites located in the watershed. This is the
installation at Lower Stringer Cr.
the snow pillow, located just to the left of the small data collection
house in the picture to the left.
TCEF Instrumentation and Characteristics
in the Little Belt Mountains of Montana (northern Rocky
Cr. is a tributary of the Smith River, which drains into the Missouri
gauged watersheds varying in size from 400ha to 2,300ha with a diverse
range of slope, aspect and topographic convergence and divergence.
ranges from 1840 to 2421m.
annual precipitation of 880mm (70% is snow from Nov. to May).
annual temperature of 0°C.
Data and Equipment Infrastructure
transects of nested wells and piezometers (140 total) across the stream
channel instrumented with real time water level recorders.
moisture probes in hillslope and riparian zones at 20 and 50cm depths
in 4 transect along Stringer Creek.
flumes with real time specific conductance (SC), temperature, and stage
gauges throughout the experimental forest
snowmelt lysimeters across a range of elevation and aspect
SNOTEL sites and 2 eddy-flux towers full energy budget instrumentation.
eddy covariance and energy balance flux towers from a riparian meadow
and lodgepole pine forest
real-time data stations located in upland and riparian settings log
soil CO2 concentrations, soil moisture, and soil temperature at two
depths (5 and 20 cm)
wells and piezometers with GW level loggers
soil gas wells (5, 20, and 50 cm) to measure soil CO2 concentrations
respiration plots to measure soil surface CO2 efflux
of 6 elevated nested gas wells (above ground) to measure the CO2
concentration profile in the snowpack
water tension lysimeters (8 riparian, 8 hillslope)
permanent flumes to gauge streamflow
stream electrical conductivity and temperature probes distributed
across 3 sites
satellite linked real-time snow survey telemetry (SNOTEL) stations
(2259 m and 1996 m)
logging snowmelt lysimeters
remote sensing coverage
topography and vegetation data (<1m resolution)
biometry measurements over time
years of hydrological and meteorological records
field site photos
(* indicates student lead author; I indicates invitied
MN, BL McGlynn, RS McGlynn. 2003. Transient
storage processes and stream discharge in
a headwater stream Maimai, New Zealand. (poster) North American
Benthological Society Annual
Meeting, Athens, GA.
McGlynn, BL, MN Gooseff, RS McGlynn. 2003. Stream-upland
connections and the effects of stream discharge on
transient storage processes. American Geophysical Union
San Francisco, CA. [ poster ]
McGlynn, BL, and MN Gooseff. 2004. A
stream tracer technique employing ionic tracers and specific conductance
Union Fall Meeting,
San Francisco, CA.
RA, MN Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, SM Wondzell, and K Jencso. 2005. Water balance
and residence time in stream functional units of differing scales . American Geophysical
Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [ poster]
SM, MN Gooseff, and BL McGlynn. 2005. On
the Role of Hyporheic Exchange and Stream Flow Velocity in Driving
Diurnal Fluctuations in Discharge During Baseflow Recession.
American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.
BL, and J Seibert. 2005. Hewlett's legacy: Remaining challenges and
possible ways forward. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.
BL. 2005. Flowpaths Integrating Terrestrial and Aquatic Components of
Catchment Ecosystems. Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City,
BL. 2006. Tohoku University, Japan, Engineering Department, February.
BL, J Seibert, R Gresswell, and D Bateman. 2006. Landscape analysis of
stream-upland connections: Implications for runoff generation,
biogeochemistry, and in-stream habitat. North American Benthological
Society Annual Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska.
Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, and SM Wondzell. 2006. Measurements of simultaneous
hydrologic gains and losses over stream reaches. North American Benthological Society Annual
Meeting, Anchorage, AK. [ poster]
K., B.L. McGlynn, M. Gooseff, and R. Payn. 2006. Landscape controls on
hillslope-riparian-stream hydrologic connections in a set of nested
catchments, Northern Rocky Mountains. Montana American Water Resources
Association Fall Meeting.
M, M Gooseff, and B McGlynn. 2006. Scaling of
transient storage parameter estimates with increasing reach length in a
mountain headwater stream. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting
A, M Gooseff, B McGlynn, R Payn, and M Briggs. 2006. Comparison of
stream reach scale transport of Rhodamine WT and NaCl in coupled
mountain stream-hyporheic system. American Geophysical Union Fall
Meeting (B23A-1055). [ poster]
K, B McGlynn, M Gooseff, S Wondzell, and K Bencala. 2006. Landscape controls
on hillslope-riparian-stream hydrologic connections in a set of nested
catchments, Northern Rocky Mountains. American Geophysical Union
Fall Meeting (H31E-1473).
M Gooseff, B McGlynn, K Bencala, and S Wondzell. 2006. Tracer observations
of spatial and temporal variations in water exchange across the
stream-catchment interface. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting
B, H Epstein, D Welsch, M Gooseff, D Riveros, V Pacific, D Muth, R
Emanuel, R Payn, K Jencso, J Wraith, L Marshall, M Skidmore, and W
McCaughey. 2006. Tenderfoot
Creek Experimental Forest, Montana: Measuring and modeling carbon and
water fluxes from point to watershed scales. American Geophysical
Union Fall Meeting (B53A-0337) [poster].
T., B.L. McGlynn, M. Weiler, M. McHale, T. Meixner, L. Marshall, M.
Gooseff, and K. McGuire. 2006. Taking the Pulse
of Hydrology Education. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting
MN Gooseff, and DA Benson. 2007. Comparison
of stream reach residence time distributions measured with tracer
experiments of different time scales. Hydrology Days, Colorado
State University. [ poster]
M Gooseff, BL McGlynn, and SA Thomas. 2007. Sensitivity
of whole-stream metabolism estimates to fully characterized stream -
groundwater exchange. North American Benthological Society Annual
Meeting, Columbia, South Carolina.
RA Payn, BL
McGlynn, KE Bencala, and SM Wondzell. 2007. Multiple
spatial scales of surface water-groundwater exchange in a headwater
stream in Montana, USA . Geological Society
of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado.
Benson, OA Cirpka, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, and JH
Bradford. 2007. Non-parametric
comparison of residence time distributions derived from constant-rate
and instantaneous stream tracer experiments . Geological
Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado.
Gooseff, SM Wondzell, KE Bencala, and RA Payn. 2007. Topographic
controls on hillslope–riparian water table continuity in a
set of nested catchments, northern Rocky Mountains, Montana.
Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco ( H21A-0168).
BL, K Jencso, RA Payn, MN Gooseff, SM Wondzell, and J Seibert. 2007. I Conceptualizing,
testing, and transferring watershed
characteristics-runoff generation relationships. American
Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco ( H12E-01).
RA, MN Gooseff,
BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, SM Wondzell, and K Jencso. 2007. Relationships
between stream–ground water exchange and topography of the channel,
valley, and watershed. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San
Francisco ( H53B-1232).
Bencala, KE, BA
Kimball, and MN Gooseff. 2008. Tracer
estimation of localized flow loss from a stream gaining water at the
catchment scale . North American
Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
Gooseff, MN, KE
McGlynn, MA Briggs, and DT Scott. 2008. Limitations
to spatial scaling of transient storage . North American
Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
*Payn, RA, MN
BL McGlynn, and SA Thomas. 2008. The
influence of stream water balance on the measurement of stream solute
North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.
Gooseff , K
Jencso, and BL McGlynn .
in stream flow and specific discharge along three headwater streams in
central Montana, USA. American Geophysical
Meeting, San Francisco ( H11B) .
J, B McGlynn, MN
Gooseff , R
Payn and S Wondzell.
2008. L andscape
structure as a 1st order control on whole catchment hydrologic and
solute response characteristics across contrasting climate conditions.
Meeting, San Francisco ( H3E).
B, K Jencso, K Gardner, and MN
variability effects on landscape hydrologic connectivity, riparian
buffering potentia, and solute fluxes. American Geophysical
Meeting, San Francisco ( H13J).
MN, and BL McGlynn. 2005. A
stream tracer technique employing ionic tracers and specific
conductance data applied to the Maimai catchment, New Zealand. , 19(13): 2491-2506. Hydrological
E, MN Gooseff, and SL Johnson. 2006. Changes
in the character of stream water dissolved organic carbon during
flushing in three small watersheds, Oregon. ,
111, G01007, doi:10.1029/2005JG000082. Journal of Geophysical Research
J, and BL McGlynn. 2007. A
new triangular multiple flow-direction algorithm for computing upslope
areas from gridded digital elevation models. Water Resources
Research, 43, W04501, doi:10.1029/2006WR005128.
J, and BL McGlynn. 2005. Landscape
element contributions to storm runoff. Encyclopedia of
Hydrological Sciences, Wiley. (Invited book chapter).
BL. 2005. The
role of riparian zones in steep mountain watersheds, in Global
Change and Mountain Regions. “Advances in Global Change Research
book series”, Martin Beniston (ed), Kluwer. (Invited book chapter)
T, M Weiler, BL McGlynn, M Gooseff, T Meixner, L Marshall, K McGuire,
McHale. 2007. Taking
the pulse of hydrology education. ,
21(13):1789-1792. Hydrological Processes [Related
to broader impacts]
SM, MN Gooseff, and BL McGlynn. 2007. Flow
velocity and the hydrologic behavior of streams during baseflow , Geophysical
Research Letters , L24404, doi:10.1029/2007GL031256.
RA, MN Gooseff, DA
Benson, OA Cirpka, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP
McNamara, and JH Bradford. 2008. Comparison
of instantaneous and constant-rate stream tracer experiments through
non-parametric analysis of residence time distributions. 44, W06404,
Resources Research, .
MN, SM Wondzell, and KE Bencala. Solute
Transport Along Stream and River Networks in , eds. S Rice, A Roy, and B Rhodes,
395-418. [book chapter] River Confluences, Tributaries and
the Fluvial Network
Gooseff, MN, MA
Bencala, BL McGlynn, and DT Scott. In review. Interpretation of a
storage model of stream solute transport applied to overlapping spatial
SM, MN Gooseff, and
BL McGlynn. In review. Hyporheic exchange and diel fluctuations in
discharge during baseflow recession. Hydrological
*Jensco, KG, BL
McGlynn, MN Gooseff,
SM Wondzell, KE Bencala, and LA Marshall. Hydrologic
connectivity between landscapes
and streams: Transferring reach and plot scale understanding to the
catchment scale. Water
Resources Research , 45 , W04428,
Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE
Bencala, and SM Wondzell. In review. Longitudinal distribution of
balance through summer
discharge recession in a Rocky Mountain headwater stream, Montana, USA.
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page was created on 16-Dec-2003.
This page was last updated on 25-Jan-2009.