Hydrological Linkages Between Landscapes and Stream Networks


Project Title: Collaborative Research: Hydrological linkages between landscapes and streams: Transferring reach and plot scale understanding to the network and catchment scales

Project Duration: 1-Apr-2004 - 31-Mar-2008

Principal Investigators:
Michael Gooseff (Penn State University)

Stringer Cr. Watershed DEM
Stringer Cr. Watershed DEM and Current Instrumentation Map (2005).
Brian McGlynn (Montana State University)

Collaborators:
Jan Seibert (Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences)
Ken Bencala (NRP, USGS)
Steve Wondzell (USFS)

Markus Weiler (UBC)

Overview: Streams, riparian zones, and hillslopes have been intensively studied at small spatial scales (stream reaches <1 km, plots of a few m2). At the other end of the spectrum, entire catchments have been studied without explicit understanding of how different landscape units interact. In this project, we will address the connections between stream networks, riparian zones and hillslope landscape units.

We will address the following questions:
  • How can plot-scale measurements of the hydrologic processes that link hillslopes to riparian areas be scaled up to whole catchments?
  • How can reach-scale measurements of groundwater-surface water mixing in riparian and hyporheic zones be scaled up to entire stream networks?
  • How can we transfer our small-catchment scale understanding to larger portions of the landscape or other catchments?

These questions currently limit our ability to transfer our understanding of hydrological processes studied at the plot or reach scale to larger catchments. These questions beg integrated, multi-scale approaches that combine landscape level topographic analysis, process-based field investigations, and catchment-scale integration to identify the factors controlling the hydrologic connectivity between source areas generating runoff and the flow paths that link source areas to streams.

Research Site:
We will be conducting our research in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest in western Montana.

Field Activities 2005
In the summer of 2005, we established 7 well and piezometer transects across Stringer and Tenderfoot Creeks and we developed an enhanced dual stream tracer method to calculate water balances for stream reaches. We executed this new method along 28 - 100 m reaches of Stringer Cr., and partially along Upper Tenderfook Cr. We also acquired ALSM lidar data from NCALM, and preliminary products can be viewed:

The resulting digital elevation map is ~1m resolution! We are currently using this to perform enhanced landscape analyses.


Field Activities 2004

On 19-Jun-2004, we made a preliminary field reconnaissance trip to TCEF. We travelled the main stem road to the lower Tenderfoot Cr. flume and walked the entire length of Stringer Cr.




[Making water quality, stage, and GPS measurements at Lower Tenderfoot Cr. Flume]
lower tenderfoot cr stream gauge
stringer
Lower Stringer Cr. has a very different stream morphology, such as this step-pool sequence, and narrower riparian zones than...
stringer
...Upper Stringer Cr., which has a shallower slope, less developed bedform, and flows through wider meadows.
lower stringer stream gauge
The Lower Stringer Cr., stream gauge has an H-flume, records stage in a stilling well (inside the gauge house), and records stage from the sonic sensor that is attached to the tower.

In Sept., 2004 we installed a conductivity/temperature probe at this location, as well as at Upper Stringer Cr. stream gauge.
stringer snotel site
There are 2 NRCS Snotel sites located in the watershed. This is the installation at Lower Stringer Cr.
stringer snotel site
This is the snow pillow, located just to the left of the small data collection house in the picture to the left.

TCEF Instrumentation and Characteristics

Site Characteristics:

Existing Data and Equipment Infrastructure

Additional field site photos
Related Links:
SNOTEL Sites within the Forest:



Graduate Students:
Rob Payn, Ph.D student at CSM (current) Aurora Bouchier, M.S. student at CSM (current)
Kelsey Jencso, M.S. student at MSU (current)
Martin Briggs, M.S. student at CSM (current)


Undergraduate Students:
Kristen Schmidt, CSM (2005)
Becca McNamara, MSU (current)





Conference Presentations: (* indicates student lead author; I indicates invitied presentation)

  1. Gooseff, MN, BL McGlynn, RS McGlynn. 2003. Transient storage processes and stream discharge in a headwater stream Maimai, New Zealand. (poster) North American Benthological SocietyAnnual Meeting, Athens, GA.

  2. McGlynn, BL, MN Gooseff, RS McGlynn. 2003. Stream-upland connections and the effects ofstream discharge on transient storage processes.  American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [poster]

  3. McGlynn, BL, and MN Gooseff. 2004. A stream tracer technique employing ionic tracers and specific conductance data. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA.

  4. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, SM Wondzell, and K Jencso. 2005. Water balance and residence time in stream functional units of differing scales. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA. [poster]

  5. Wondzell, SM, MN Gooseff, and BL McGlynn. 2005. On the Role of Hyporheic Exchange and Stream Flow Velocity in Driving Diurnal Fluctuations in Discharge During Baseflow Recession. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.

  6. IMcGlynn. BL, and J Seibert. 2005. Hewlett's legacy: Remaining challenges and possible ways forward. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting.

  7. IMcGlynn, BL. 2005. Flowpaths Integrating Terrestrial and Aquatic Components of Catchment Ecosystems. Geological Society of America, Salt Lake City, UT.

  8. McGlynn, BL. 2006. Tohoku University, Japan, Engineering Department, February.

  9. McGlynn, BL, J Seibert, R Gresswell, and D Bateman. 2006. Landscape analysis of stream-upland connections: Implications for runoff generation, biogeochemistry, and in-stream habitat. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Anchorage, Alaska.

  10. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, and SM Wondzell. 2006. Measurements of simultaneous hydrologic gains and losses over stream reaches. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Anchorage, AK. [poster]

  11. *Jencso, K., B.L. McGlynn, M. Gooseff, and R. Payn. 2006. Landscape controls on hillslope-riparian-stream hydrologic connections in a set of nested catchments, Northern Rocky Mountains. Montana American Water Resources Association Fall Meeting.

  12. *Briggs, M, M Gooseff, and B McGlynn. 2006. Scaling of transient storage parameter estimates with increasing reach length in a mountain headwater stream. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (B23A-1054). [poster]

  13. *Bouchier, A, M Gooseff, B McGlynn, R Payn, and M Briggs. 2006. Comparison of stream reach scale transport of Rhodamine WT and NaCl in coupled mountain stream-hyporheic system. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (B23A-1055). [poster]

  14. *Jencso, K, B McGlynn, M Gooseff, S Wondzell, and K Bencala. 2006. Landscape controls on hillslope-riparian-stream hydrologic connections in a set of nested catchments, Northern Rocky Mountains. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (H31E-1473).

  15. *Payn, R, M Gooseff, B McGlynn, K Bencala, and S Wondzell. 2006. Tracer observations of spatial and temporal variations in water exchange across the stream-catchment interface. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (B22C-06).

  16. McGlynn, B, H Epstein, D Welsch, M Gooseff, D Riveros, V Pacific, D Muth, R Emanuel, R Payn, K Jencso, J Wraith, L Marshall, M Skidmore, and W McCaughey. 2006. Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest, Montana: Measuring and modeling carbon and water fluxes from point to watershed scales. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (B53A-0337) [poster].

  17. Wagener, T., B.L. McGlynn, M. Weiler, M. McHale, T. Meixner, L. Marshall, M. Gooseff, and K. McGuire. 2006. Taking the Pulse of Hydrology Education. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting (ED53B-0863).

  18. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, and DA Benson. 2007. Comparison of stream reach residence time distributions measured with tracer experiments of different time scales. Hydrology Days, Colorado State University. [poster]

  19. *Payn, RA, M Gooseff, BL McGlynn, and SA Thomas. 2007. Sensitivity of whole-stream metabolism estimates to fully characterized stream - groundwater exchange. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Columbia, South Carolina.

  20. Gooseff, MN, RA Payn, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, and SM Wondzell. 2007. Multiple spatial scales of surface water-groundwater exchange in a headwater stream in Montana, USA. Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado.

  21. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, DA Benson, OA Cirpka, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, and JH Bradford. 2007. Non-parametric comparison of residence time distributions derived from constant-rate and instantaneous stream tracer experiments.  Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Denver, Colorado.

  22. *Jencso, KG, BL McGlynn, MN Gooseff, SM Wondzell, KE Bencala, and RA Payn. 2007. Topographic controls on hillslope–riparian water table continuity in a set of nested catchments, northern Rocky Mountains, Montana. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H21A-0168).

  23. IMcGlynn, BL, K Jencso, RA Payn, MN Gooseff, SM Wondzell, and J Seibert. 2007. Conceptualizing, testing, and transferring watershed characteristics-runoff generation relationships. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H12E-01).

  24. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, SM Wondzell, and K Jencso. 2007. Relationships between stream–ground water exchange and topography of the channel, valley, and watershed. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H53B-1232).

  25. Bencala, KE, BA Kimball, and MN Gooseff. 2008. Tracer estimation of localized flow loss from a stream gaining water at the catchment scale. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.

  26. Gooseff, MN, KE Bencala, BL McGlynn, MA Briggs, and DT Scott. 2008. Limitations to spatial scaling of transient storage. North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.

  27. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, BL McGlynn, and SA Thomas. 2008. The influence of stream water balance on the measurement of stream solute dynamics.  North American Benthological Society Annual Meeting, Salt Lake City, UT.

  28. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, K Jencso, and BL McGlynn. 2008. Variability in stream flow and specific discharge along three headwater streams in central Montana, USA. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H11B).

  29. *Jencso, J, B McGlynn, MN Gooseff, R Payn and S Wondzell.  2008. Landscape structure as a 1st order control on whole catchment hydrologic and solute response characteristics across contrasting climate conditions. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H3E).

  30. McGlynn, B, K Jencso, K Gardner, and MN Gooseff. 2008. Climate variability effects on landscape hydrologic connectivity, riparian buffering potentia, and solute fluxes. American Geophysical Union Fall Meeting, San Francisco (H13J).

Publications:
  1. Gooseff, MN, and BL McGlynn. 2005. A stream tracer technique employing ionic tracers andspecific conductance data applied to the Maimai catchment, New Zealand. Hydrological Processes, 19(13): 2491-2506.

  2. Hood, E, MN Gooseff, and SL Johnson. 2006. Changes in the character of stream water dissolved organic carbon during flushing in three small watersheds, Oregon. Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, G01007, doi:10.1029/2005JG000082.

  3. Seibert, J, and BL McGlynn. 2007. A new triangular multiple flow-direction algorithm for computing upslope areas from gridded digital elevation models. Water Resources Research, 43, W04501, doi:10.1029/2006WR005128.

  4. Seibert, J, and BL McGlynn. 2005. Landscape element contributions to storm runoff. Encyclopedia of Hydrological Sciences, Wiley. (Invited book chapter).

  5. McGlynn, BL. 2005. The role of riparian zones in steep mountain watersheds, in Global Change and Mountain Regions. “Advances in Global Change Research book series”, Martin Beniston (ed), Kluwer. (Invited book chapter)

  6. Wagener, T, M Weiler, BL McGlynn, M Gooseff, T Meixner, L Marshall, K McGuire, and M McHale. 2007. Taking the pulse of hydrology educationHydrological Processes, 21(13):1789-1792. [Related to broader impacts]

  7. Wondzell, SM, MN Gooseff, and BL McGlynn. 2007. Flow velocity and the hydrologic behavior of streams during baseflow, Geophysical Research Letters, 34, L24404,doi:10.1029/2007GL031256.

  8. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, DA Benson, OA Cirpka, JP Zarnetske, WB Bowden, JP McNamara, and JH Bradford.  2008. Comparison of instantaneous and constant-rate stream tracer experiments through non-parametric analysis of residence time distributions. Water Resources Research, 44, W06404, doi:10.1029/2007WR006274.

  9. Gooseff, MN, SM Wondzell, and KE Bencala. Solute Transport Along Stream and River Networks in River Confluences, Tributaries and the Fluvial Network, eds. S Rice, A Roy, and B Rhodes, 395-418. [book chapter]

  10. Gooseff, MN, MA Briggs, KE Bencala, BL McGlynn, and DT Scott. In review. Interpretation of a transient storage model of stream solute transport applied to overlapping spatial scales.

  11. Wondzell, SM, MN Gooseff, and BL McGlynn. In review. Hyporheic exchange and diel fluctuations in discharge during baseflow recession. Hydrological Processes.

  12. *Jensco, KG, BL McGlynn, MN Gooseff, SM Wondzell, KE Bencala, and LA Marshall. Hydrologic connectivity between landscapes and streams: Transferring reach and plot scale understanding to the catchment scale. Water Resources Research, 45, W04428, doi:10.1029/2008WR007225.

  13. *Payn, RA, MN Gooseff, BL McGlynn, KE Bencala, and SM Wondzell. In review. Longitudinal distribution of channel water balance through summer discharge recession in a Rocky Mountain headwater stream, Montana, USA. Water Resources Research.

Current weather in the Tenderfoot Creek Area:
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NSF logo
This project is funded through the National Science Foundation's Geosciences Directorate
(EAR-0337781-Gooseff, EAR-0337650 - McGlynn).


This page was created on 16-Dec-2003.
This page was last updated on 25-Jan-2009.

Questions? mgooseff@engr.psu.edu