Applications and test cases

Comparison with observations

Streamflow records

Red CedarClinton streamflow


two gages

Groundwater records

scatter pointsGroundwater time series comparison

Soil moisture


Soil temperature

soil temperature

MODIS-based Leaf Area Index (LAI)


MODIS-based ET estimates


GRACE (Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment)


Tested basins

Red Cedar River watershed (1169km2)

Red Cedar River

Clinton River watershed (1837km2)
Clinton River Watershed

Upper Grand River watershed (coming soon...) (4531 km2)

Grand River watershed (14430 km2)

Saginaw River watershed (22260 km2)


Kalamazoo River watershed (5200 km2)

California Desert environment (coming soon...) (6711 km2)

Numerical test cases

Extensive numerical test cases have been done (and continously added) to validate the numerical aspects of PAWS. Both surface and subsurface flow results are very favorable, compared with analytical solution, experimental results and 3D models
V catchment

1D infiltration

1D infiltration

2D saturated groundwater mdoel

Groundwater flow

Compared to some other simplified methods (e.g. Dirichlet lower boundary condition), the soil moisture profile is consistent with the groundwater table. The Dirichlet BC will require that saturation point in the moisture profile be higher than GW table if there is recharge going to the phreatic water table.

PAWS simulated soil moisture profile is consistent with groundwater table

Comparison between PAWS and some 3D models. (a) and (b) are saturation excess, (c) and (d)

comparison with 3D models

(Shen and Phanikumar 2010)



(Maxwell et al. 2014)